A High-Fiber Diet Improves the Vascular Function as Well as Glycemic Control in the Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract Number: 399-PP
Authors: YOSHIHIKO NISHIO, KEIKO KONDO, KEIKO NAKAO, TETSUYA HASHIMOTO, ATSUSHI ISHIKADO, SATOSHI UGI, ATSUNORI KASHIWAGI, HIROSHI MAEGAWA
Institutions: Otsu, Shiga, Japan
Results: Dietary fiber reduces the glycemic response of carbohydrate resulting in decreasing postprandial glucose level. This effect of dietary fiber may improve the impairments of vascular function in the patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this possibility, we investigated the vascular function of 8 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (age: 58.0 ± 6.0) and 10 patients with type 2 diabetes (age: 59.2 ± 11.1) with reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography. In addition, the diabetic patients were followed for 16 weeks assigned to two periods of 8 weeks of either a high-fiber diet or control diet in a randomized crossover design. The high-fiber diet was provided in retort pouch once a day. Before and after each period, vascular function was evaluated and 75g oral glucose tolerance test was performed.
The vascular functions assessed with either peak forearm blood flow (416.7 ± 209.3 vs. 800.4 ± 458.4%, p = 0.026) or flow debt repayment (FDR) (47.7 ± 18.1 vs. 103.9 ± 68.0%, p = 0.015) was significantly impaired in diabetic patients as compared with control. The intervention of an 8 weeks high-fiber diet once a day improved 39.2% of peak forearm blood blow (p = 0.075), and 63.5% of FDR (p = 0.006), but control diet did not show any effects. Total energy intake was unchanged through out the study periods. The intake of dietary fiber in the high-fiber diet period was higher than that in the baseline or control period (23.9 ± 4.3 vs. 12.8 ± 3.0 vs. 12.4 ± 2.8 g/day, p < 0.0001). Body weight (69.7 ± 12.9 vs. 68.5 ± 13.2 kg, p = 0.007), fasting glucose (135.4 ± 37.7 vs. 124.1 ± 31.1 mg/dL, p < 0.05), glucose AUC for 2 hours (29500 ± 6570 vs. 27100 ± 7540 mg•min/dL, p < 0.05) and HbA1c (7.0 ± 0.6 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6%, p = 0.036) levels were significantly reduced after the high-fiber diet period.
Present study demonstrated that taking a high-fiber diet once a day improved the vascular dysfunction as well as glycemic control in the patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting the importance of dietary fiber intake for the prevention of cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes.